Android architecture is a stack of different components which are as follows:
Let me define each term in brief.
Android application is just simple applications we use in our mobile phones like Facebook, Gmail, LinkedIn, etc. Which we built using classes and services. It is the topmost layer in the android architecture.
#2 Linux Kernal
In Android, the OS is a Linux kernel, it is the OS responsibilities to run different operations in the device and handle multiple events like memory management, resource management, power management, etc.
In order to support android development, there are some libraries that are used to help application development which includes c/c++ and some core java libraries like SQLite, OpenGL, SSL, etc.
The purpose of the framework is to make development easy by providing classes and libraries.
Basically it provides the APIs that make the developer life easier by writing small lines of code for different services.
Some of the examples of android framework services are Location services, WIFI services, telephony services, etc.
#5 Android Runtime
Android runtime contains core libraries and DVM (Dalvik Virtual Machine).
DVM is just like JVM that relies on Linux Kernal for threading.
Core Libraries helps us to make an android application using java programming language.
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